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The active substance Valium diazepam belongs to the group of drugs of the benzodiazepine series (tranquilizers), which have anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, as well as anticonvulsant properties. The mechanism of action of Valium is due to the stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors, which leads to an increase in the inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain.
Indications for use
Symptomatic treatment of anxiety and tension in mental and hereditary diseases and transient situational mental disorders. It is used as an adjunct for the treatment of anxiety in organic mental disorders. Anxiety can manifest in the form of restless behavior and/or in the form of functional autonomic or motor symptoms (palpitations, sweating, insomnia, tremor, anxiety, etc.).
As a supplement, it is used to facilitate the reflex spasm of the muscles at the site of injury (trauma, inflammation), for the treatment of spastic conditions in injuries of the spine and supraspinal interneurons to ease the spasm of cerebral origin, and paraplegia, as well as rigidity.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome manifests itself in anxiety, tension, agitation, tremor, transient reactive states.
The use of Valium during pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy, it is used only in exceptional cases and only for vital indications. It has a toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of developing birth defects when used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Taking therapeutic doses in later pregnancy can cause depression of the newborn’s central nervous system, hypotension, respiratory failure, hypothermia.
Constant use during pregnancy can lead to physical dependence. Also, withdrawal syndrome is possible in a newborn. If the drug is used during labor and childbirth, then special care should be taken, since high doses can lead to heart rhythm disorders in the child, as well as cause hypotension, hypothermia, respiratory depression. Valium and its metabolites enter breast milk. Breast-feeding during treatment with the drug should be discontinued.
Restrictions on use
- chronic respiratory failure,
- sleep apnea syndrome,
- severe renal dysfunction,
- open-angle glaucoma (on the background of adequate therapy),
- age up to 6 months (only for vital indications in a hospital),
- pregnancy (II and III trimester).
Valium and its contraindications
The most common side effects are fatigue, drowsiness and muscle weakness, which usually depend on the dose. These effects occur mainly at the beginning of treatment and usually disappear with further administration of Valium.
In case of the above-mentioned adverse reactions or adverse reactions not specified in this instruction for the medical use of the drug, it is necessary to consult a doctor, namely in case of:
- acute liver and kidney diseases,
- severe liver failure,
- severe myasthenia gravis,
- suicidal tendencies,
- drug or alcohol dependence (except for the treatment of acute withdrawal syndrome),
- severe respiratory failure,
- severe hypercapnia,
- cerebral and spinal ataxia,
- acute glaucoma attack,
- angle-closure glaucoma,
- pregnancy (I trimester),
- age up to 30 days.
Symptoms of an overdose include the depression of the central nervous system of varying severity (from drowsiness to coma): pronounced drowsiness, lethargy, weakness, decreased muscle tone, ataxia, prolonged confusion, inhibition of reflexes, coma; hypotension, respiratory depression are also possible.
Treatment includes induction of vomiting and administration of activated charcoal (if the patient is conscious), gastric lavage through a probe (if the patient is unconscious), symptomatic therapy, monitoring of vital functions, intravenous fluids (to enhance diuresis), and, if necessary, ventilator. With the development of arousal, barbiturates should not be used. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil is used as a specific antidote (in a hospital setting). Hemodialysis is ineffective.